Central Penn uses APA Style & Citation Format. This style is based on the The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). A copy of the APA Manual is available for use in the library (but cannot be taken out of the library).
Always cite the source in two places:
1. An abbreviated citation goes in the text of your paper immediately adjacent to the borrowed material
2. The full citation should be listed in the References at the end of your paper
(See our Academic Integrity guide for more information)
When citing a book, journal article, or other paged source, use the page number of the borrowed material.
When citing a source without page numbers (such as websites), use the paragraph number.
Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable "to state the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation" (pp. 5-6).
Many students still refuse to "separate the author from the citation at the end of the quoted material" (Spencer, 2006, pp. 5-6).
Name the organization in text or include the whole name in parentheses at the end.
Example: Acquiring effective study habits is the most important indicator of first-year college student success ("Students," 2002, para. 3).
This can include private letters, some email, interviews you conduct, etc. They are not recoverable (no one else will be able to find this information) so do not need to be listed on the Reference page but will need to be cited in your text. Follow the same order for other in-text citations - immediately following the quote or paraphrase.
First initials and last name of the communicator (personal communication, date of communication).
Example: "The quality of work has increased year to year" (D. Porterfield, personal communication, June 10, 2019).
Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher.
King, M. L., Jr. (2010). Stride toward freedom: The Montgomery story. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Swanson, C., Chamelin, N., & Territo, L. (2012). Criminal investigation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Burke, W. W., & Nourmair, D. A. (2001). The role of personality assessment in organization development. In J. Waclawski & A. H. Church (Eds.), Organization development: A data-driven approach to organizational change (pp. 55-77). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved from http://web address
Example: Shelley, M. W. (1869). Frankenstein; or, the modern Prometheus. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=2Zc3AAAAYAAJ&dq=frankenstein&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=frankenstein&f=false
Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Format].
Pollan, M. (2007). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York, NY: Penguin Books. [Kindle version].
Author's last name, first initial. (publication date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume#(issue#), pages.
Fain, M. (2011). Assessing information literacy skills development in first year students: A multi-year study. Journal Of Academic Librarianship, 37(2), 109-119.
Author's last name, first initial. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume#(issue#), pages. doi
Akbar-Williams, T. (2012, November). In order to lead, you have to know what direction you are going: Cultivating well-rounded leaders is staking a claim on our future. College & Research Libraries News, 73, 606-607. Retrieved from http://crln.acrl.org/
Bishop, D. M. (2006). Public opinion and juvenile justice policy: Myths and misconceptions. Criminology & Public Policy, 5(4), 653-664. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00408.x
Author's last name, first initial. (date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address
Mayo Clinic. (2018, January 5). Chronic fatigue syndrome. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-fatigue-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20360490
Author's last name, first initial. (date of publication). Title of document: Subtitle if any [file format for ex: PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Blackboard. or the URL (no period at the end of URLs)
Notes you take during class are personal communication. You do not need a reference for them but you will need an in-text citation.
“In general, a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data” (p. 183).
“Choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. . .When in doubt, provide more information rather than less” (p. 193).
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