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APA & Academic Integrity: Citation

Find out how to cite and format your paper using APA, and how to have academic integrity as a college student.

How do I cite?

Central Penn uses APA Style & Citation Format. This style is based on the The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). A copy of the APA Manual is available for use in the library (but cannot be taken out of the library).

When should I cite?

Whenever you:

  • quote a source
  • paraphrase a source (even if it's in your own words)
  • summarize a source
  • borrow an image, graph, statistics, etc.

Where do I cite?

Always cite the source in two places:

1. An abbreviated citation goes in the text of your paper immediately adjacent to the borrowed material

2. The full citation should be listed in the References at the end of your paper

When is it OK to skip the citation?

  • When you're stating your own opinion
  • When the information is considered "common knowledge" (meaning it's a non-controversial fact you could find in multiple sources, such as: George Washington was the first president of the United States)
  • When you're using your own original work - such as a study you conducted for your assignment

Citation Rules

General rules:

  • Include the author's last name, year of publication, and page/paragraph number
  • Quotes: use quotation marks around the quoted material
  • Paraphrases and summaries: do not include quotation marks

 

Page versus Paragraph

When citing a book, journal article, or other paged source, use the page number of the borrowed material.

  • For one page, use p. 
  • For more than one page, use pp. 

When citing a source without page numbers (such as websites), use the paragraph number.

  • Regardless of how many paragraphs you are citing, use para.

 

Quotations or Paraphrases

Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable "to state the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation" (pp. 5-6)

OR

Many students still refuse to "separate the author from the citation at the end of the quoted material" (Spencer, 2006, pp. 5-6).

 

Summaries

Use a page number if you are summarizing a small section of the work

  • Example: Jones and Senoj (2007) explain that citing sources does not have to be as difficult as students seem to believe (p. 54).

Do not use page numbers if your summary spans multiple pages

  • Example: Citing sources becomes easier the more frequently one tries to do it (Jones & Senoj, 2007).

 

Unknown Author

  • Mention the work's title in the text or give the first word or two of the title in the in-text citation
  • Titles of articles are put in "quotation marks"
  • Titles of books are italicized
  • If Anonymous is ever used, treat it as a real name

Example: Acquiring effective study habits is the most important indicator of first-year college student success ("Students," 2002, para. 3).

 

Organization as the Author

Name the organization in text or include the whole name in parentheses at the end.

  • Example: According to the WHO (2016), 5-10% of all cancer-related deaths in Bangladesh stem from arsenic poisoning that pollutes the region (para. 9-10).
  • Example: "In Bangladesh, 5–10% of all cancer deaths in an arsenic-contaminated region were attributable to arsenic exposure" (as cited in World Health Organization, 2016, para. 9-10).

how to cite in-text multiple authors

PRINT BOOKS

Only 1 Author

Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher.

King, M. L., Jr. (2010). Stride toward freedom: The Montgomery story. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

 

More than 1 Author

  • Separate the authors' names with commas
  • Use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author

Swanson, C., Chamelin, N., & Territo, L. (2012). Criminal investigation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

 

E-BOOKS

Online

Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher. Retrieved from http://web address

Example: Shelley, M. W. (1869). Frankenstein; or, the modern Prometheus. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=2Zc3AAAAYAAJ&dq=frankenstein&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=frankenstein&f=false

 

E-Reader

Author's last name, initials. (year of publication). Title of book: With only capitalization of first word of title and subtitle and any proper nouns. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Format].

Pollan, M. (2007). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York, NY: Penguin Books. [Kindle version].

 

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Print

Author's last name, first initial. (publication date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume#(issue#), pages.

Fain, M. (2011). Assessing information literacy skills development in first year students: A multi-year study. Journal Of Academic Librarianship37(2), 109-119. 

 

Online

  • If the source has no publication date use: n.d. 
  • DOI - Digital Object Identifier, a unique number associated with that specific article. For online sources, a DOI is stable, where a URL is not. 
  • If the DOI is not available, use the URL for the journal's homepage

Author's last name, first initial. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume#(issue#), pages. doi

Akbar-Williams, T. (2012, November). In order to lead, you have to know what direction you are going: Cultivating well-rounded leaders is staking a claim on our future. College & Research Libraries News, 73, 606-607. Retrieved from http://crln.acrl.org/

Bishop, D. M. (2006). Public opinion and juvenile justice policy: Myths and misconceptions. Criminology & Public Policy5(4), 653-664. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00408.x

WEBSITE

  • When using more than one page in a Web document, provide the URL for the entry or home page for that document
  • Remove all live hyperlinks

Author's last name, first initial. (date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

Mayo Clinic. (2011, June 18). Chronic fatigue syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/chronic-fatigue-syndrome/DS00395

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Citing Without a Model

What if I can't find the right model?

“In general, a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data” (p. 183).


“Choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. . .When in doubt, provide more information rather than less” (p. 193).

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