References include the author(s), the Date it was published, the Title of the article, the Title of the Source, the page range of the article (or article number), and the DOI or URL.
Use the information you have. If there is no DOI or URL, such as if you are looking at an article in print (not online), then there is no DOI or URL to include, the reference would end with the page numbers. If there is no publication month or day, just use the year. If there is no date at all, use n.d.
If an article has an article number use the article number instead of pages in the Reference, but if there is a pdf with page numbers use the page numbers for in-text citations, and on the reference page use the article number.
If an article has been published online before the print version is available, enter "Advance online publication" where you would normally have the volume or issue number.
In the examples below the Reference example is followed by an example of a parenthetical in-text citation from that source. Refer to citations: In-Text for more information on In-Text Citations.
Author's last name, first initial. middle initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume#(issue#), pages-pages. DOI or URL
(Lastname, Year, p. #)
Bishop, D. M. (2006). Public opinion and juvenile justice policy: Myths and misconceptions. Criminology & Public Policy, 5(4), 653-664. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00408.x
(Bishop, 2006, p. 654)
Williams, T. (2017). Culturally proficient leadership may not be efficient. Journal of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning, and Leadership in Education, 2(1), Article 5. https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/ctlle/vol2/iss2/5/
(Williams, 2017, p. 45)
Somers, C. L., Day, A. G., Niewiadomski, J., Sutter, C., Baroni, B. A., & Hong, J. S. (2018). Understanding how school climate affects overall mood in residential care: Perspectives of adolescent girls in foster care and juvenile justice systems. Juvenile & Family Court Journal, 69(4), 43–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfcj.12120
(Somers et al., 2018)
Evans, M. (2019, June). The trouble with Lyme: Why can't we hit the target with diagnosis and treatment? The Oprah Magazine, 20 (6), pp.59-61.
If retrieving articles from a library database, do not include the database information unless the source you are using is exclusive to that database or limited circulation, such as Cochrane Library or Dissertations & Theses. Most articles can be found in multiple databases, so do not need to include the database information.
Lunn, M., Hughes, R., & Wiffen, P. J. (2014, January 3). Duloxetine for treating painful neuropathy, chronic pain or fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007115.pub3
Thomas, G. (2014). The influence of homeland security on policing (Publication No. 3645567) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.