Watch the short video above to see how to create a proper in-text citation using signal phrases and parenthetical citations. Below, you will find additional information about how to cite your sources within your text.
When citing a book, journal article, or other paged source, use the page number of the borrowed material.
When citing a source without page numbers (such as websites), find a way for the reader to locate the information you are using. This could be a section or heading name on a website, a paragraph number (manually count the paragraphs and use the abbreviation 'para.'), a slide number on a PowerPoint, a timestamp for a video, etc.
Immunotherapy "treatment involves a series of injections of purified allergen extracts" (Mayo Clinic, n.d., "Treatment" section, para.3).
To cite a quote from a film or other audiovisual media, use a time stamp in place of the a page number.
(Whedon, 2015, 16:30)
A 'narrative' in-text citation incorporates the citation information within the text you are writing.
Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable "to state the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation" (pp. 5-6).
A 'parenthetical' citation has all of the citation information within parentheses.
Many students still refuse to "separate the author from the citation at the end of the quoted material" (Spencer, 2006, pp. 5-6).
If you want to abbreviate the name the organization. Introduce the abbreviation by first including the whole name, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.
Example: Acquiring effective study habits is the most important indicator of first-year college student success ("Students," 2002, para. 3).
This can include private letters, some email, interviews you conduct, etc. They are not recoverable (no one else will be able to find this information) so do not need to be listed on the Reference page but will need to be cited in your text. Follow the same order for other in-text citations - immediately following the quote or paraphrase.
First initials and last name of the communicator (personal communication, date of communication).
Example: "The quality of work has increased year to year" (D. Porterfield, personal communication, June 10, 2019).
If a source you are using refers to another source, try to obtain that other source for a citation. If you can't get to that source use 'as cited in" to acknowledge both sources. Include the date of the original source (should be on the source you are using's Reference page); if the date is not listed then omit that part of the citation.
(Greave, 2015, as cited in Schein, 2017) - where the source you have is by Schein from 2017, but you are citing an article by Greave published in 2015. Greave's speech (as cited in Schein, 2017) - when you do not know the date of the original source.
|Type of Author||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Silas, 1989)||Silas (1989)...|
|Two authors||(Silas & Breacher, 1990)||Silas and Breacher (1990) ...|
|Three or more authors||(Silas et al., 1990)||Silas et al. (1990) ...|
Group author with an abbreviation*
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2020) ...
CDC (2020) ...
|Group author no abbreviation||(Central Penn College, 2019)||Central Penn College (2019) ...|
|Two authors with the same last name||
(B. Silas, 1991)
(J. Silas, 1992)
B. Silas (1991) ....
J. Silas (1992) ...
Two sources by the same author in the same year
Silas (1990a) ...
Silas (1990b) ...
*Group authors with abbreviations are NOT abbreviated on the Reference page, spell out the entire name.