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APA Style & Citation 7th edition

How to format your paper and cite your sources using 7th ed. APA style.

Citation Rules: References

Class Material

Typically class material is considered a 'personal communication'. These are sources that typically can't be accessed by your reader, such as email, texts, lecture notes, interviews that you have conducted, etc. For personal communications you do not need a reference but you would need an in-text citation.

However, if the reader can retrieve the original (for example: your professor when you are citing the powerpoint slides used in class) they should be listed on the Reference page, using the login page for Blackboard as the source and source URL.

Author's last name, first initial. (date of publication). Title of document: Subtitle if any [file format for ex: PowerPoint presentation]. Blackboard at Central Penn College.


Government Reports

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. URL [starts with https://]

Elsner, S., Upton, R., & Gann, C. (2020, January). Small area income and poverty estimates: 2018 (Report No. P30-06). U.S. Census Bureau.


Legal Materials

Legal references follow The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.


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